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Regarding the exhibition of "single-line and double-line calligraphic works"

Kyoko Asai
Professor at the Aizu Museum

The phrase "Chazen-ichimi (the goals of tea ceremony and Zen Buddhism are the same)" indicates that Zen Buddhism functioned as the spiritual pillar when tea ceremony was developed by Murata Juko, Takeno Joo, and Sen no Rikyu.

Since his mentors Kitamuki Dochin and Takeno Joo practiced Zen meditation under the instruction of Dairin Soutou (1480-1568, 90th monk of Daitoku Temple), Rikyu, who is said to have developed wabi-cha, underwent Zen training first under the supervision of Dairin and then under the instruction of Shourei Soukin (1504-1583, 2nd monk of Sakai Nanshu Temple) and Kokei Souchin (1532-1597, 117th monk of Daitoku Temple). When Emperor Ogimachi granted the Buddhist rank of koji to Rikyu in 1585, Kokei acclaimed him and celebrated his achievement. It can be said that this acclaim certified that Rikyu was full-fledged. Other tea masters, too, were closely related to the monks of Daitoku Temple. The dogo (pseudonym as a priest) of Furuta Oribe, "Kinho", was given by Shunoku Souen, and Katagiri Sekishu received the hogo (priest name) and dogo from Gyokushitsu Souhaku and Gyokushu Souban. Shoan, who is the second generation of the Sen-no family, received the gaathaa of Shoan from Shunoku Souen, and Soutan, the grandson of Sen no Rikyu, worked as katsujiki (meal announcer) for Shunoku and received the go, "Genshuku". In this background, the single-line calligraphic works created by the monks related to Daitoku Temple were cherished in tea ceremony. This exhibition displays 23 works produced by 21 monks related to Myoshin Temple, Soto-shu, and Obaku-shu. We hope you will savor and feel familiarity with the differences in calligraphic style and the meanings of the phrases.

The following are the biographies of some monks and the meanings of the lines.

[Monks related to Daitoku Temple]

Shunpo Souki (1409-1496)
Born in Harima. Entered the Buddhist priesthood regarding Kanshin of Kennin Temple. At the age of 24, he was trained by Yousou of Daitoku Temple, and succeeded to its teaching. In 1461, he became the 40th chief priest of Daitoku Temple. Opened Youtokuin. During the Onin War, he stayed at Youshunan in Sennan and later resided in Daitoku Temple again, to restore the run-down Daitoku Temple. Aka Suan.
"下山路是上山路": The path for leaving a temple is also the path for climbing for worshiping.

Gyokushitsu Souhaku (1572-1641)
Pupil and nephew of Shunoku Souen. At the age of 36, he was promoted to the 147th chief priest of Daitoku Temple. Built Daigen Temple, Kourin Temple, and Houshun-in. However, he conspired with Takuan et al. in the Shie Incident, and was exiled to Tanagura, Oushu for 3 years.
"直指人心見性成佛": This phrase is often used in the inscriptions of Bodhidharma portraits, etc. According to "Comprehensive Dictionary of Zen," enlightenment can be achieved by directly seeing mind and realizing that own mind itself is Buddhism.

Tenyu Joko,
single-line calligraphy:
"心々無別心"

Kougetsu Sougan,
single-line calligraphy:
"雨中看杲日"

Kougetsu Sougan (1574-1643)
The 156th chief priest of Daitoku Temple and the pupil of Shunoku Souen. Received the aegis of Kuroda Nagamasa with his mentor, restored Soufuku Temple in Hakata, and engaged in the construction of the annex of Daitoku Temple: Ryoukouin. Became the founder of Kohouan and Sunshoan. Kougetsu, the son of Tsuda Sogyu, who was a wealthy merchant and tea master in Sakai, was acquainted with Kobori Enshu and Shokado Shojo et al. A lot of classic items, including tea ceremony goods, are stored in Ryoukouin. Aka Kanshinshi and Kakukakushi.
"雨中看杲日": The first part of "雨中看杲日 火裏酌清泉." According to "Glossary of Zen," it means the ignorance of self. Seeing sunlight in rain is impossible, which is the enlightenment achieved through mental concentration for realizing Buddhism inside self.

Tenyu Joko (1586-1666)
Born in Oumi. Following the teaching of Hankou Soutei, he became the 169th chief priest of Daitoku Temple. Established Yamato Tokugen Temple. Aka Mubanshi and Jitsumuso.
"心外無別心": It has almost the same meanings as "心外無別法." Shoyouroku 91 writes "三界唯一心 心外無別法 心佛及衆生 是三無差別." This means that there is no another mind outside mind and so we should seek Buddhism inside our heart. It is said that Mr. Tomioka hung this calligraphy in an alcove.

[Monks related to Myoshin Temple]

Hakuin Ekaku
"観世音菩薩" Name of a bodhisattva

Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1768)
Grown in Suruga. Born in Harajuku, Tokaido. Entered the Buddhist priesthood at Shoin Temple at the age of 15. After traveling around Japan, he received enlightenment from Shoju Rojin of Shinano Iiyama. Suffered from disease due to hard training, but overcame it after leaning the introspection method from Hakuyushi in Shirakawa, Kyoto. Returned to his hometown hearing about the critical condition of his father, at the age of 32. In the following year, he entered Shoin Temple. Worked as a Buddhist monk in black cloths in Shoin Temple for the rest of his life. Restored Rinzai Zen Sect. It is said that he produced 10,000 calligraphic works.
"観世音菩薩": Name of a bodhisattva

Suiou Genro (1717-1789)
Grown in Shimotsuke. Met Hakuin at the age of around 30, and studied under him for about 20 years. Recommended by Higashimine, he succeeded to Hakuin and became the 2nd monk of Shoin Temple. Liked poets, alcoholic beverages, go, and paintings, and called himself Suiou (酔翁), and later Suiou (遂翁). Got acquainted with Ikeno Taiga. It was said "the great vessel Suiou, the meticulous Higashimine." One of the major speedsters in Hakuin. Wrote few literatures, and produced various paintings, including Shingyosou.
"青山常運歩": According to "Glossary of Zen," this means the absolute ideology in which the static and the dynamic are identical.

Tourei Enji (1721-1792)
Grown in Obata, Oumi. Entered the priesthood at the age of 9, and met Kogetsu Zenzai at the age of 17. Kogetsu was already aged, and so he could not train himself enough. Then, he met Hakuin at the age of 23, and received a certification from Hakuin at the age of 29. Restored Muryo Temple in Surugahina, built Ryutaku Temple in Mishima, and operated it diligently. Restored Shidoan and Kitoan in Owari. He was also versed in Shinto, wrote a lot of literatures utilizing his excellent literary talent, and drew unique calligraphic works related to Zen with wild touch.
"三十棒": It means that a teaching monk arouses disciplinants from training out of mercy. The discussion section of "Rinzairoku" writes "師聞第二代徳山垂示云 道得三十棒 道不得三十棒."

[Monk of Soto-shu]

Gesshu Souko
Single-line calligraphy
"祖月禅風"

Gesshu Souko (1618-1696)
Grown in Takeo, Hizen. Entered the Buddhist priesthood, following the instruction of Kagaku of Ennou Temple at the age of 12, and traveled on foot at the age of 16 and reached Kanto. Stayed at Tahouin in Hitachi. Met Bannan Eishu of Zuigan Temple in Tanba. Hearing that Ingen Ryuki and Dousha Chogen would stay at Kofuku Temple in Tomei, he joined them. After resignation, he met Hakuho Genteki of Daijo Temple in Kaga, and secretely received the robe of Bodhidharma and Bodhidharma's Dharma from him. In the last years of his life, he stayed at an old temple in Taharason, Kyoto calling it Fudarakusan Zenjo Temple.
"祖月禅風"

[Monks of Oubakushu]

Mokuan Shoto
Single-line calligraphy "圓磋碧玉長"

Ingen Ryuki
Single-line calligraphy "撥一白雲晩"

Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673)
Born in Fuqing, Fujian. At the age of 29, he entered the Buddhist priesthood under the mentorship of Kangen Kouju in Obakusan. After traveling to meet mentors in each region, he succeeded to Hiin Tsuyo, and engaged in the teaching of Buddhism. In 1654, he was invited by Itsunen, et al. and visited the dynasty with a lot of 30 people, including monks and craftsmen. In 1661, he established Oubakusan Manpuku Temple in Uji, and promoted Zen. He influenced the Zen field in Japan significantly.

Mokuan Shoutou (1611-1684)
Born in Quanzhou, Fujian, and entered the Buddhist priesthood under the mentorship of Inmyowa of Kaigen Temple. Clarified his weaknesses under the supervision of Eikaku Tenken. Met Hiin and Ingen, and followed the dharma of Ingen. Visited the dynasty in 1655, and assisted in the establishment of Oubakusan Manpuku Temple, which was started in 1661. Became a mountain owner in 1664, and started the construction of a sangharama while enlisting assistance from the Shogunate. The sangharama, etc. were Chinese style, the statue produced by the sculptor Handousei in Ming was placed, and his way of reading sutras and lifestyle were all Chinese style. Therefore, someone mentioned, "山門を出ずれば日本ぞ茶摘歌" ("The tea picking song, which I heard at the exit gate of Manpuku Temple, made me realize that I was in Japan.")
"撥一白雲晩" "圓磋碧玉長": (a pair of hanging scrolls created by Ingen and Mokuan)

Kyoko Asai
Professor at the Aizu Museum

Former Arts and Sciences manager at the Tomioka Art Gallery. Took up position at Waseda University in April 2004 and is currently a professor at the Aizu Museum.